rio, label, window, wloc – window system
-i ’cmd ’
-k ’kbdcmd ’
minx miny maxx maxy
manages asynchronous layers of text, or windows, on a raster display.
It also serves a variety of files for communicating with
and controlling windows; these are discussed in section
command starts a new instance of the window system.
option names a startup script, which typically contains several
commands generated by
to run the command
at startup and allow it to provide characters as keyboard input; the
program described in
is the usual choice.
option initializes windows so that text scrolls;
the default is not to scroll.
option reverses the normal color sheme for windows, painting white
text on a black background.
argument names a font used to display text, both in
and as a default for any programs running in its windows; it also
is not given,
uses the imported value of
if set; otherwise it imports the default font from the underlying graphics
server, usually the terminal’s operating system.
command changes a window’s identifying name.
command creates a window.
By default, it creates a shell window and sizes and places it automatically.
The geometry arguments control the size
the units are pixels with the
upper left corner of the screen at (0, 0).
option causes the window to be created off-screen.
options set the scroll mode.
option sets the working directory.
The optional command and arguments
define which program to run in the window.
to create the window and run the command. Therefore, the window and command
will be created by
and run in a new file name space, just as if the window had been created using the interactive menu.
option uses the file server properties of
the new window’s name space within the name space of the program calling
This means, for example, that running
in a CPU window will create another window whose command runs on the terminal, where
is running; while
will create another window whose command runs on the CPU server.
command prints the coordinates and label of each window in its instance of
and is used to construct arguments for
Each window behaves as a separate terminal with at least one process
associated with it.
When a window is created, a new process (usually a shell; see
is established and bound to the window as a new process group.
Initially, each window acts as a simple terminal that displays character text;
the standard input and output of its processes
are attached to
Other special files, accessible to the processes running in a window,
may be used to make the window a more general display.
Some of these are mentioned here; the complete set is
One window is
and is indicated with a dark border and text;
characters typed on the keyboard are available in the
file of the process in the current window.
Characters written on
appear asynchronously in the associated window whether or not the window
Windows are created, deleted and rearranged using the mouse.
Clicking (pressing and releasing) mouse button 1 in a non-current
window makes that window current and brings it in front of
any windows that happen to be overlapping it.
When the mouse cursor points to the background area or is in
a window that has not claimed the mouse for its own use,
pressing mouse button 3 activates a
menu of window operations provided by
Releasing button 3 then selects an operation.
At this point, a gunsight or cross cursor indicates that
an operation is pending.
The button 3 menu operations are:
Create a window.
Press button 3 where one corner of the new rectangle should
appear (cross cursor), and move the mouse, while holding down button 3, to the
diagonally opposite corner.
Releasing button 3 creates the window, and makes it current.
Very small windows may not be created.
Change the size and location of a window.
First click button 3 in the window to be changed
Then sweep out a window as for the
The window is made current.
Move a window to another location.
After pressing and holding button 3 over the window to be moved (gunsight cursor),
indicate the new position by dragging the rectangle to the new location.
The window is made current.
Windows may be moved partially off-screen.
Delete a window. Click in the window to be deleted (gunsight cursor).
Deleting a window causes a
note to be sent to all processes in the window’s process group
Hide a window. Click in the window to be hidden (gunsight cursor);
it will be moved off-screen.
Each hidden window is given a menu entry in the button 3 menu according to the
value of the file
Restore a hidden window.
Windows may also be arranged by dragging their borders.
Pressing button 1 or 2 over a window’s border allows one to
move the corresponding edge or corner, while button 3
moves the whole window.
Characters typed on the keyboard or written to
collect in the window to form
a long, continuous document.
There is always some
a contiguous string marked on the screen by reversing its color.
If the selected text is a null string, it is indicated by a hairline cursor
between two characters.
The selected text
may be edited by mousing and typing.
Text is selected by pointing and clicking button 1
to make a null-string selection, or by pointing,
then sweeping with button 1 pressed.
Text may also be selected by double-clicking:
just inside a matched delimiter-pair
with one of
on the left and
on the right, it selects all text within
the pair; at the beginning
or end of a line, it selects the line; within or at the edge of an alphanumeric word,
it selects the word.
Characters typed on the keyboard replace the selected text;
if this text is not empty, it is placed in a
common to all windows but distinct from that of
Programs access the text in the window at a single point
maintained automatically by
is the location in the text where the next character written by
a program to
will appear; afterwards, the output point is the null string
beyond the new character.
The output point is also the location in the text of the next character
that will be read (directly from the text in the window,
not from an intervening buffer)
by a program from
When such a read will occur is, however, under control of
and the user.
In general there is text in the window after the output point,
usually placed there by typing but occasionally by the editing
operations described below.
A pending read of
will block until the text after the output point contains
a newline, whereupon the read may
acquire the text, up to and including the newline.
After the read, as described above, the output point will be at
the beginning of the next line of text.
In normal circumstances, therefore, typed text is delivered
to programs a line at a time.
Changes made by typing or editing before the text is read will not
be seen by the program reading it.
If the program in the window does not read the terminal,
for example if it is a long-running computation, there may
accumulate multiple lines of text after the output point;
changes made to all this text will be seen when the text
is eventually read.
This means, for example, that one may edit out newlines in
unread text to forestall the associated text being read when
the program finishes computing.
This behavior is very different from most systems.
Even when there are newlines in the output text,
will not honor reads if the window is in
which is indicated by a white cursor and blue text and border.
The ESC character toggles hold mode.
Some programs, such as
automatically turn on hold mode to simplify the editing of multi-line text;
type ESC when done to allow
to read the text.
An EOT character (control-D) behaves exactly like newline except
that it is not delivered to a program when read.
Thus on an empty line an EOT serves to deliver an end-of-file indication:
the read will return zero characters.
Like newlines, unread EOTs may be successfully edited out of the text.
The BS character (control-H) erases the character before the selected text.
The ETB character (control-W) erases any nonalphanumeric characters, then
the alphanumeric word just before the selected text.
‘Alphanumeric’ here means non-blanks and non-punctuation.
The NAK character (control-U) erases the text after the output point,
and not yet read by a program, but not more than one line.
All these characters are typed on the keyboard and hence replace
the selected text; for example, typing a BS with a word selected
places the word in the snarf buffer, removes it from the screen,
and erases the character before the word.
An ACK character (control-F) or Insert character triggers file name completion
for the preceding string (see
Typing a left or right arrow moves the cursor one character in that direction.
Typing an SOH character (control-A) moves the cursor to the beginning of the
current line; an ENQ character (control-E) moves to the end. The STX character
(control-B) moves the cursor to the output point.
Text may be moved vertically within the window.
A scroll bar on the left of the window shows in its clear portion what fragment of the
total output text is visible on the screen, and in its gray part what
is above or below view;
it measures characters, not lines.
Mousing inside the scroll bar moves text:
clicking button 1 with the mouse pointing inside the scroll bar
brings the line at the top of the
window to the cursor’s vertical location;
button 3 takes the line at the cursor to the top of the window;
button 2, treating the scroll bar as a ruler, jumps to the indicated portion
of the stored text.
Holding a button pressed in the scroll bar will cause the text
to scroll continuously until the button is released.
Also, a page down
half a window, and page up or up-arrow scrolls back.
Typing the home key scrolls to the top of the window; typing the end key scrolls
to the bottom.
The DEL character sends an
note to all processes in the window’s process group.
Unlike the other characters, the DEL, VIEW, and up- and down-arrow
keys do not affect the selected text.
The left (right) arrow key moves the selection to one character
before (after) the current selection.
Normally, written output to a window blocks when
the text reaches the end of the screen;
a button 2 menu item toggles scrolling.
Other editing operations are selected from a menu on button 2.
operation deletes the selected text
from the screen and puts it in the snarf buffer;
copies the selected text to the buffer without deleting it;
replaces the selected text with the contents of the buffer;
copies the snarf buffer to just after the output point, adding a final newline
will sometimes and
will always place text after the output point; the text so placed
will behave exactly as described above. Therefore when pasting
text containing newlines after the output point, it may be prudent
to turn on hold mode first.
menu item sends the contents of the selection (not the snarf buffer) to the
If the selection is empty, it sends the white-space-delimited text
containing the selection (typing cursor).
A typical use of this feature is to tell the editor to find the source of an error
by plumbing the file and line information in a compiler’s diagnostic.
Raw text windows
Opening or manipulating certain files served by
suppresses some of the services supplied to ordinary text windows.
While the file
is open, any mouse operations are the responsibility of another program
running in the window. Thus,
refrains from maintaining
the scroll bar,
supplying text editing or menus, interpreting the
VIEW key as a request to scroll, and also turns scrolling on.
controls interpretation of keyboard input.
In particular, a raw mode may be set:
in a raw-input window, no typed keyboard characters are special,
they are not echoed to the screen, and all are passed
to a program immediately upon reading, instead of being gathered into
A program that holds
open after putting the console in raw mode
has complete control of the window:
it interprets all mouse events, gets all keyboard characters,
and determines what appears on the screen.
Files served by
(also unioned in
in a window’s name space, before the terminal’s real
Server end of
Named pipe for
The standard input of
is redirected to the newly created window, so there is no way to pipe the output
of a program to the standard input of the new window.
In some cases,
can be used to work around this limitation.